Guideline Specification for External Bonding of Steel Plates to Concrete
by Injection of Structural Epoxy Adhesives
This guideline specification is provided to engineers,
specifiers and architects to aid them in establishing the requirements
for steel plate bonding by injection of structural epoxy adhesives.
The specification also establishes the minimum requirements for such
repairs by approved applicators of ChemCo Systems.
This specification establishes standards for materials and equipment, execution of work, field quality control, applicator and workman's qualifications and provides information for measurement and payment. The procedures for work execution described herein are considered to be typical and may have to be modified for specific job conditions.
External plate bonding using structural epoxies
||The Contractor or his sub-contractor, subject to certain pre-qualification conditions, shall furnish all materials, injection and auxiliary equipment, tools, labor and supervision necessary to fill voids on concrete substrate and perform other preparation for the injection of epoxy resin between the concrete and steel plate.
|| Materials and Equipment
||2.1.1 The injection resin shall be a two component epoxy adhesives which has the capability to bond to concrete, wood or steel surfaces.
2.1.2 For injection of cracks up to 1/4 inch, cold joints, delaminations
and holes above 40°F, the two component epoxy adhesive shall
have a mixed viscosity from 200 to 350 cps at 73°F. such as
For repair of structures whose internal mass temperature during
service exceeds 105°F, the HDT of the adhesive to be used shall
be 25°F higher than the maximum service temperature. All other
physical properties shall comply with the provisions of ASTM C881,
Type IV. Adhesives used in non-load bearing applications shall comply
with the provisions of ASTM C881, Type I, II, III or IV depending
upon project specifics.
2.1.3. For void filling applications and the repair of wide gaps
and delaminations a liquid two component epoxy adhesive with long
potlife (1.5 hours, min.) and low exotherm such as Kemko
077 shall be used. The product shall have physical properties
which meet the provisions of ASTM C881, Type I with the exception
that a cure time of 14 days is allowed for all tests.
||2.2.1 The application of sealing material shall fully contain the liquid adhesive to be injected. If necessary, the seal shall be applied on the open edges of the steel plate and any anchor bolt opening with the potential to leak.
2.2.2 The sealing material shall have adequate strength to hold injection ports in place and the capability of withstanding the pressure during adhesive injection and cure. Removal of seal shall be possible without undue alteration of the surface.
Portable equipment shall be used employing positive displacement metering pumps which are interlocked to provide resin delivery in proportions required by the composition of the two component injection adhesive. Mixing of the adhesive shall be accomplished in line with a static mixer. The equipment shall be driven by air or electric power.
2.3.2 Specific Equipment Requirements.
(a) Ratio tolerance.
The injection equipment shall be capable of maintaining the volume ratio of the specified adhesive components during uninterrupted flow within a tolerance of +/- 5%.
(b) Pressure Control.
The injection equipment shall have an automatic pressure control device that allows operation at any preset pressure within its operating range.
(c). Automatic Shut-Off.
The injection equipment shall have an automatic shut-off feature to prevent delivery of one adhesive component only, when the other component supply is exhausted.
|| Execution of Work
||3.1.1 The contractor/sub-contractor may be require to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Engineer his ability to perform the work by repairing a mockup or a contained section of the steel plate of at least 8 feet in length selected by the Engineer employing the methods outlined below.
3.1.2 The contractor/sub-contractor shall be paid for the demonstration work on the same basis as for the entire of the contract work.
3.1.3 Contractor/sub-contractor's ability to perform the work shall be confirmed by testing procedures selected by the Engineer.
3.1.4 Acceptance of the test results by the Engineer shall be in writing, giving the contractor/sub-contractor permission to proceed and complete the work subject to periodic tests as outlined in 126.96.36.199.
||Surface Preparation, Placement
of Injection Ports
3.2.1. Both concrete and
steel surfaces applicable to epoxy plate bonding shall be cleaned
of dirt, dust, oil, efflorescence, paint or other foreign material
which may be detrimental to establishing a bond of the sealing
material prior to epoxy injection. Steel should be cleaned to
SSPC-SP-5 and concrete should be cleaned by abrasion methods or
other surface preparation which causes a 4-5 mil surface profile.
3.2.1a Steel surfaces should be cleaned within 4 hours of application
of adhesive to avoid flash rust. Steel plates should be flat and
exhbit no gaps over 1/8" from the mating surface of the concrete.
3.2.2 The entry ports shall be located
and spaced on or near the centerline of the plate's length as
directed by the Engineer in a formula generally approximated by
the width of the plate. Port setting shall be done in such a manner
as not to interfere with the injection and venting of the airspace
between the plate and the concrete and or prevent subsequent adhesive
3.2.3 Adhesive injection shall not be started before the seal
material has had adequate time to acquire sufficient strength
to withstand injection pressures.
3.3.1 Injection of the epoxy
adhesive shall begin at the lowest entry port and continue until
there the adhesive emerges from the next adjacent (higher) port.
For a horizontal beam or flange, the lowest point is generally
the center of the beam and injection proceeds from the center
outward in both directions.
3.3.3 The process of injection, waiting
for emergence of adhesive from the next adjacent port, sealing
of the injection port and continuation of injection in the adjacent
port shall continue until the crack is filled.
3.3.2 Typically as the adhesive emerges from the adjacent port,
injection shall be stopped, the port sealed and the injection
transferred to the adjacent port.
3.3.4 The process of injection described in 3.3.1 to 3.3.3 may
be modified to the extent that injection at the original port
may be continued after emergence of adhesive from the adjacent
port by sealing that port and waiting for emergence at at the
next higher port or ports. This modification of the regular injection
procedure may be used if the injection pressure does not substantially
increase, the port seals remain in place and no leaks become apparent.
3.3.5 If port to port travel of the injection adhesive is not
indicated, the work shall be stopped and remedial action shall
be taken which may require resetting of surface ports or drilling
holes which intersect with the void space from a different angle.
Such work shall only be done after authorization from the Engineer.
||3.4.1 After the crack has been completely filled, the injection adhesive shall be given sufficient time to cure to a state which allows removal of the seal without any adhesive run-out or smearing of the adjacent surface.
3.4.2 All surface seal material and injection adhesive runs or spills shall be carefully removed from the surface, if so directed by the Engineer.
3.4.3 The face of the steel plate shall restored to a smooth appearance and indentations or protrusions caused by the placement of entry ports shall be removed, if so directed by the Engineer.
3.4.4 Seal removal (3.4.1) and surface finishing (3.4.3) shall be specific bid items or factors in negotiated work, while removal of runs or spills (3.4.2) is included in the contract price.
||Field Quality Control
||3.5.1 Testing to verify adhesive penetration and bond strength.
188.8.131.52 After the injection work has been completed by the contractor, nondestructive testing using ultrasound, radiographic techniques or sounding by hammer will be conducted by the Engineer to verify correct placement of the injected epoxy and detect non-bonded areas of the plate. A passing grade shall be evidenced by a minimum 90% coverage of the mated internal surfaces between the steel and concrete faces.
184.108.40.206 At the Engineer's option, verification of bond can also be confirmed by a destructive test using a modified ASTM D-4541 procedure by cutting an annular ring about 1" O.D. in the steel plate and attaching an Elcometer adhesion tester. At the direction of and at locations identified by the Engineer, contractor/subcontractor shall perform this test of complete bonding, if its strength is not known or is subject of disagreement.
220.127.116.11.1 Tensile bond strengths of the attached steel should be comparable values to the results obtained from control buttons glued with the same mixed injection resin applied by hand on a properly prepared substrate. Bond Strength: Concrete - Failure primarily in concrete before adhesive failure becomes apparent at 90% of the concrete or the sound concrete sample (average) compressive strength. For concrete with a compressive strength of 6,500 psi or greater, the test bond shall not fail below 90 % of the actual compressive strength or at 6,500 psi, whichever is lower.
18.104.22.168 Failure of verification testing:
The work shall be stopped in that area. Additional tests shall be taken at the direction of the Engineer. Compliance of the verification with the test requirements shall constitute permission to resume work. Upon failure to meet the test requirements, the Engineer may authorize continuation of the work in the area, if in his judgment the actual bond strength and adhesive coverage is adequate, or he may order additional verification tests, or he may reject this work.
22.214.171.124 All testing, including demonstration and verification sampling and testing shall be performed at the owner's expense.
126.96.36.199 Contractor shall provide all following labor, materials
and services for core sampling and testing as directed by the Engineer,
including and not limited to:
(a) Preparation, handling, storage and transportation of epoxy injection test specimens.
(b) Providing suitable containers for the storage, curing and transportation of test specimens.
(c) Providing a suitable storage area for test equipment, supplies and other items required for sampling and space for testing, if field tests are conducted.
(d) Making arrangements for core testing be an independent testing facility.
3.5.2 Injection Equipment Tests.
188.8.131.52 To verify the performance of the injection equipment, pressure and ratio test shall be conducted by the method, in a frequency and with the results as set forth below.
184.108.40.206 Pressure/Ratio Test Equipment.
The test equipment shall be a device with two independent sections, identical in design and function, one for each adhesive component, complete with proper fittings, pressure gauges (250 psi max. rating), in-line filters and needle valves with appropriate discharge nozzles. The device shall be capable of controlling flow rate and pressure of each adhesive component independently by opening or closing the needle valves.
220.127.116.11 Pressure Test.
(a) Test Method.
The mix-head of the injection equipment, in the off-position for this purpose, shall be disconnected from the two adhesive component delivery hoses which are then re-connected to the appropriate section of the pressure/ratio test device. The valves of the test device shall be closed. The injection equipment shall then be started and allowed to operate until the pressure in the test device reaches and exceeds 160, but not more than 200 psi in both sections. The injection equipment shall then be turned off and the pressure shall be let down to 160 psi by slightly opening each valve. After reaching 160 psi, the valves shall be closed and the pressure in the system observed for 5 minutes.
(b) Test Result.
During the two minute waiting period the pressure in each section of the pressure/ratio test device shall not fall to below 150 psi.
(c) Frequency of Test.
The pressure test shall be performed on the injection equipment at the beginning and the middle of each work shift it is used.
18.104.22.168 Ratio Test.
(a) Test Method.
Employing the test device described in 22.214.171.124 and connecting it in the same manner as described in 126.96.36.199 to the injection equipment, the injection equipment is in operation and the adhesive components are being simultaneously discharged and collected in separate preweighed or calibrated containers. At least 100 g or 3 fluid ounces of the lesser volume component of the two component adhesive shall be collected. For greater accuracy of the test, samples shall be obtained by simultaneously collecting the adhesive components while the equipment is running. To accomplish this the sample containers shall be quickly and simultaneously moved into the stream of the adhesive components and removed when sufficient sample was collected.
(b) Test Requirements.
The test shall be conducted at atmospheric pressure and at 160 psi at the prevailing job site temperature and employing the adhesive to be used in the repair.
(c) Test Results.
The average error of at least three individual tests in the ratio of the two adhesive components collected shall not exceed +/- 5%.
(d) Test Frequency.
The ratio test shall be conducted at the beginning and the middle of each shift the injection equipment is in use. The Engineer may direct the contractor/subcontractor to conduct additional ratio tests, if there is reason to believe that the equipment does not deliver the adhesive in the proper proportions.
|| Contractor/Subcontractor Pre-Qualification
The epoxy injection work shall be performed by a Kemko approved/licensed
applicator of the epoxy injection, who has received training in
the use of precision metering injection equipment, Kemko materials
and has been familiarized with the techniques used in their application
in crack repair.
4.2. Workman's Qualification.
Contractor/Subcontractor workmen engaged in epoxy injection work
shall have satisfactorily completed a program of instruction in
the methods of repairing concrete structures and beams utilizing
the Kemko Injection Process and Kemko adhesives. These instructions
shall familiarize the workmen with the causes of cracking in concrete,
proper material selection, planning and execution of epoxy injection
work and the operation, troubleshooting and maintenance of Kemko
||Measurement and Payment
Crack repair by epoxy adhesive injection shall be measured per
lineal foot, or per location, or per crew day, or on a lump sum,
or time and material basis.
Payment for crack repair by epoxy adhesive injection shall be
made at the contract price in units as determined in 5.1.
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