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Nanjing, China Project

Detailed Information

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What is Epoxy Asphalt?

epoxy asphalt for steel decks
Laying the levelling course
The two-component Epoxy Asphalt binder, when cured, becomes a two-phase epoxy polymer that contains an asphalt extender. The continuous phase is an acid cured epoxy and the discontinuous phase is a mixture of asphaltic materials. It is a thermoset polymer (it will not melt). This binder, combined with high quality standard asphalt paving aggregates, forms a tough polymer concrete called Epoxy Asphalt Concrete. A hot spray application of an Epoxy Asphalt bond (tack) coat precedes the laying of the Epoxy Asphalt Concrete.


Epoxy Asphalt pavement Advantages

Fatigue Resistance

The excellent fatigue resistance of Epoxy Asphalt enables it to maintain its integrity on orthotropic steel bridge decks without cracking even after the deflections caused by millions of wheel loads. The composite action of the epoxy asphalt, unlike that of more flexible pavements, increases the fatigue life of the steel deck and structure by reducing deflection, and thus strain, in the steel.

Corrosion Protection

Epoxy Asphalt provides another layer of corrosion protection for the steel deck in addition to the primary corrosion protection coating because of its low void content of less than 3%. The voids that do exist are not interconnected. The result is an impervious pavement with extreme resistance to penetration of water and chloride ions.

Epoxy asphalt on replacement steel deck
Completed replacement deck plate. Over 800 of these panels were installed on the Golden Gate bridge over a period of two years.
Resistance to Rutting and Shoving

Because Epoxy Asphalt binder is a thermoset polymer (as opposed to a thermoplastic polymer such as conventional and rubber-modified asphalt), it provides excellent resistance to rutting and shoving even under high wheel loads in hot and cold climates.

Skid Resistance

Epoxy Asphalt pavements include high quality, polish resistant aggregates that provide outstanding skid resistance throughout their life. The Epoxy Asphalt binder does not "bleed" as do thermoplastic bituminous paving materials when the pavement gets hot. As soon as the binder on the aggregate exposed to traffic wears off, vehicle tires see only the aggregate.

Oxidation Resistance

Epoxy Asphalt binders exhibit extremely low rates of oxidation and loss of resiliancy unlike standard and polymer modifed binders. Pavements and overlays constructed with Epoxy Asphalt maintain their properties and do not become more rigid with time. These properties have been validated by several OECD research studies seeking a long-lived pavement for busy roads conducted by the International Transport Forum. In addition, New Zealand is evaluating Epoxy Asphalt as a extended life binder for open-graded porous pavements, in an application where the binder is exposed to more air and water by design.

Delamination Resistance

Epoxy Asphalt pavements include a separate, high strength, temperature resistant (non melting) bond coat. Unlike regular or polymer modified asphalts, the Epoxy Asphalt bond coat provides a high strength bond to the underlying substrate (concrete or steel) even at elevated temperatures of 158F (70C). In some cases, where delamination has been identified previously as a primary cause of failure, the Epoxy Asphalt bond coat has been successfully employed with polymer modified SMA pavements on steel decks.

Minimum Traffic Delays

epoxy asphalt on deck panel
Epoxy Asphalt bond coat is sprayed onto the inorganic zinc-coated deck plates. The bond coat is about 0.03 inches (0.68mm) thick.
Epoxy Asphalt provides the absolute minimum delays for re-paving existing bridges under traffic. An Epoxy Asphalt pavement is ready for traffic in its partially cured state once it has cooled to ambient temperature. It develops full strength over two to four weeks depending on average daily temperatures.

Local Paving Crews

Local paving crews using conventional asphalt paving equipment install Epoxy Asphalt. ChemCo Systems engineers provide training and technical support during the project. ChemCo supplies the special blending equipment (meter-mix machine) for the two Epoxy Asphalt components. This special equipment is operated by local labor. There is no need to import specialized labor.

Applications

Epoxy Asphalt placements on orthotropic steel decks range from the San Mateo-Hayward bridge, paved in 1967, to the SuTong Bridgecable stay bridge with epoxy asphalt, which was completed in 2007 and many others [see last table]. The San Mateo-Hayward pavement is in excellent condition today after 39 years of service with minimal maintenance. Orthotropic decks using epoxy asphalt include bridges paved in Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Two bridges have been paved with Epoxy Asphalt and then, after 20 years of successful service, re-paved with the same material. Epoxy Asphalt has been successfully used in climates with winter temperatures below 0°F and summer deck temperatures reaching 170°F.

Installation

Epoxy Asphalt helps meet the challenge of replacing old concrete bridge decks with orthotropic steel decks while minimizing traffic interruption. Shop applied Epoxy Asphalt Chip Seal provides a durable skid resistant surfacing that protects each steel plate from wear and corrosion until all plates are in place and welded together. Epoxy Asphalt concrete provides the long term wearing surface when it is installed after all deck plates are in place. Both the Golden Gate Bridge and the Lions Gate Bridge used this system for their deck replacement projects.
orthotropic deck with epoxy asphalt
2nd Yangtze River Bridge, bridge deck side view
The concrete deck of the heavily traveled Golden Gate Bridge was replaced and paved with no daytime lane closures. Lane shutdown began at 8 PM, paving began at 10 PM and all lanes were opened at 5 AM the next morning. Throughout the night at least one lane was always open in each direction for traffic.


Epoxy Asphalt Concrete vs. Asphalt Concrete

Property Test Method (ASTM) Asphalt Concrete Epoxy Asphalt
Marshall Stability @ 140°F, lb. D1559 2,500 8,000 to 14,000
Marshall Stability @ 400°F, lb. D1559 melts 4000
Flow value @ 140°F, in. D1559 0.11 0.08
Recovery % min. D1559 0 60
Compressive strength @ 77°F, psi D695 3400
Comp. modulus of elasticity @ 77°, psi D695 167,000
Flex. modulus of rupture @ 77°, psi D293 81 640
Flex. modulus of elasticity @ 77°, psi D293 380,000
Max. deflection, inch D293 0.1 0.15
Air voids, % D2041 3 to 5 1 to 2

Epoxy Asphalt Binder & Bond Coat (neat)

Property Test Method (ASTM) Binder Bond Coat
Tensile Strength, psi D412 300 1300
Tensile Elongation, % D412 300 225
Heat Deflection Temperature, °F D648 -20 -14

Epoxy Asphalt Concrete/Binder — Bond Strength

Property Test Method (ASTM) Value Failure Location
Tensile Bond Strength to Inorganic Zinc Coated Steel, psi ACI 503R 300 to 500 Bond Coat
Tensile Bond Strength to Portland Cement Concrete, psi ACI 503R 250 to 350 Portland Cement Concrete

Fatigue Resistance

Properly designed Epoxy Asphalt Pavements for orthotropic steel bridge decks provide a durable surface that resists fatigue cracking in the pavement in the negative moment area above the longitudinal stiffeners. Additionally, the pavement, acting as one element in the compsite deck system, reduces deck deflection under load and thus increases the fatigue life of the steel deck plate itself.

Deck Deflection Comparison1
Load, kN 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
Deflection, Bare Steel Plate, mm 0.06 0.16 0.26 0.36 0.46 0.57 0.67 0.78
Deflection, Epoxy Asphalt/Steel Composite, mm 0.03 0.12 0.18 0.26 0.34 0.42 0.51 0.60

Dynamic testing conducted in independent civil engineering laboratories have shown that Epoxy Asphalt pavements resist fatigue cracking over a wide range of conditions. The following table summarizes recent results.

Fatigue Test Results of Epoxy Asphalt — Steel Deck Composite 1,2
Temperature, °C Static Deflection, mm Dynamic Deflection, mm Cycles to Failure
0 0.25 0.02 12x106 with no failure
18 0.35 0.18 12x106 with no failure
60 0.61 0.58 12x106 with no failure

Above test results from study conducted by Transportation College of Southeast University, Nanjing, China, 2000
1. Test specimen: 14 mm plate 100 mm wide, center point load from underside.
2. Test load: 5kN load @ 10 Hz frequency



fatigue test epoxy asphalt

Left: Fatigue test setup in
dynamic testing machine
for 18°C test.


Right: Environmental
chamber for fatigue
tests at 0 and 60 °C.

durability testing for epoxy asphalt

History of Epoxy Asphalt Pavements: Over 60 Bridges and 400 km of bridge lanes paved

Name of Bridge Location Date Deck Type Area Sq. Feet Area Sq. Meters Approx. Tons
San Mateo-Hayward San Mateo, CA
1967
9/16" O-T Steel 430,000 39,948 5,495
San Diego-Coronado San Diego, CA
1969
3/8" O-T Steel 116,000 10,777 1,482
San Francisco- Oakland Bay Bridge San Francisco, CA
1969
PC Concrete 155,000 14,400 1,981
McKay Halifax, N. S.
1970
3/8" O-T Steel 128,000 11,892 1,636
Queensway A Long Beach, CA
1970
O-T Steel 96,000 8,919 1,227
MacDonald Halifax, N. S.
1971
Conc. Filled StI. Grid Main Span 119,000 11,055 1,521
Ross Island Portland, OR
1972
PC Concrete 146,000 13,564 1,866
Evergreen Point Seattle, WA
1972
PC Concrete 270,000 25,084 3,450
Sellwood Portland, OR
1973
PC Concrete 47,000 4,366 601
Fremont Portland, OR
1973
5/8" O-T Steel 155,000 14,400 1,981
Costa de Silva (Rio-Niteroi) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1973
3/8" O-T Steel 220,000 20,439 2,811
1-94 Bridges Minneapolis, MN
1973
PC Concrete 99,000 9,197 1,265
Mercer Montreal, Quebec
1974
3/8" O-T Steel 21,000 1,951 268
Lions Gate Vancouver, B. C.
1975
15/32" O-T Steel 77,000 7,154 984
San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge San Francisco, CA (2 decks)
1976
PC Concrete 1,475,000 137,032 18,849
1977
1,290,000 119,845 16,485
Luling New Orleans, LA
1983
7/16" O-T Steel 219,000 20,346 2,799
Ben Franklin Philadelphia, PA
1986
5/8" O-T Steel 632,000 58,715 8,076
Golden Gate San Francisco, CA
1986
5/8" O-T Steel 576,000 53,512 7,361
McKay Halifax, N. S.
1990
3/8" O-T Steel 128,000 11,892 1,636
San Diego-Coronado San Diego, CA
1993
3/8" O-T Steel 1,650 153 21
Champlain Montreal, Quebec
1993
3/8" O-T Steel 200,000 18,581 2,556
Maritime Off-Ramp Oakland, CA
1996
5/8" O-T Steel 69,075 6,417 883
2nd Yangtze Bridge Nanjing, China
2000
14 mm(approx. 9/16") O-T Steel 548,527 50,960 7,014
Lions Gate Bridge Vancouver, B.C.
2002
O-T Steel 77,000 7,154 700
Taoyaomen Zhoushan, China
2003
14 mm O-T Steel 278,173 25,843 3,557
Runyang Cable-stay Zhenjiang, China
2004
14 mm O-T Steel 308,348 28,646 3,943
Runyang Suspension Zhenjiang, China
2004
14 mm O-T Steel 572,646 53,201 7,323
Dagu Tianjin, China
2004
O-T Steel 66,640 6,191 833
3rd Yangtze Bridge Nanjing, China
2005
14 mm O-T Steel 525,066 48,780 6,714
Pingsheng Fushon, China
2006
O-T Steel 169,474 15,745 2,167
Zhanjiang Bay Zhanjiang, China
2006
O-T Steel 312,805 29,061 4,000
Fenghua Tianjin, China
2006
O-T Steel 13,132 1,220 168
Nanhuan Beijing, China
2006
O-T Steel 115,626 10,742 1,479
Sutong Nantong, China
2007
O-T Steel 764,000 70,978 10,943
Hangzhou Bay (2 bridges) Ningbo, China
2007
O-T Steel 737,327 68,500 9,429
Yangluo Wuhan, China
2007
O-T Steel 521,715 48,469 6,671
Houhai Shenzhen, China
2007
O-T Steel 44,910 4,172 574
Fu Ming, Chin Feng, Li Gong, Si Hai Tianjin China
2007
O-T Steel 138,439 12,861 1,770
Huang Pu (2 bridges) Guangzhou China
2008
O-T Steel 556,830 51,731 8,700
Xihoumen and Jintang Zhoushan China
2008
O-T Steel 800,868 74,403 10,110
3rd Yellow River Jintan China
2008
O-T Steel 333,976 31,027 4,271
YuZui Chongqing China
2009
O-T Steel 200,800 18,655 3,100
BaLing Guizhou China
2009
O-T Steel 261,888 24,330 4,043
Baishazhou Wuhan China
2009
O-T Steel 378,888 35,200 8,786
Xiangluowan Tianjin China
2009
O-T Steel 31,609 2,937 486
Thuon Phuoc DaNang Viet Nam
2009
O-T Steel 84,368 7,838 1,079
Banpald Bangkok Thailand
2009
O-T Steel 40,922 3,802 523
Pong Pech Bangkok Thailand
2009
O-T Steel 40,922 3,802 523
Rama IV Bangkok Thailand
2009
concrete 54,562 5,069 698
E'dong Bridge Hu Bei, China
2010
O-T Steel 258,287 23,996 3,311
Jing yue Bridge Hu Bei, China
2010
O-T Steel 403,544 37,491 6,243
Qing dao Bay Bridge Qing Dao, China
2010
O-T Steel 517,160 48,046 8,000
Chong Qi Bridge Jiang Su, China
2011
O-T Steel 265,296 24,647 4,100
South Train Station Bridge Nan Jing, China
2012
O-T Steel 275,551 25,600 4,257
Fremont Bridge Portland, OR
2012
5/8" O-T Steel 176,287 16,378 2,253
Jiu jiang Second Bridge Jiang Xi, China
2013
O-T Steel 358,457 33,302 5,543
Huang yi Bridge Si Chuan, China
2013
O-T Steel 100,097 9,299 1,543
Tao hua yu Bridge Zheng Zhou, China
2013
O-T Steel 237,604 22,074 3,671
San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge San Francisco, CA
2013
O-T Steel 358,953 33,348 3,900


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